Critical Accounting Reports for Your Small Business
Here are the key reports to know about, including profit and loss statements, revenue by customer and more.
You run your own business, and you constantly ask “how am I doing”. The following reports will help answer these questions.
The most important report for any business is the income statement, also called a P&L. This report tells you how much money a business makes, as well as a lot more. A well-run bookkeeping operation includes details for where you spend and where your money comes from. For example, I can look at my P&L for a quick summary of how much I make from writing, how much I make from advertising, how much I spend on business travel and how much I pay for computer and internet costs. Each business would have different accounts for its own income and spending categories.
Small business owners should look at this report at least monthly. It is also a good idea to look at trends, comparing current results to the same period in the prior year and comparing the most recent month with the last few months. This should tell you what’s working well and what isn’t, as well as help you focus on the most profitable parts of the business.
A balance sheet gives you a snapshot of what a business has and owes at any given time. For small businesses, assets typically include things like bank accounts, accounts receivables, and possibly an investment account. A balance sheet may also include assets like property, computers, equipment and other saleable physical and intangible property. Liabilities generally include things like credit cards, business loans and anything else your business owes.
The accounting equation is based on the balance sheet. It tells us that assets plus liabilities equals equity. The difference in what you have and what you owe should ideally be a positive number and one that grows over time.
When examining the balance sheet, also look at the short-term assets versus short-term liabilities. If you have payments owed soon, you won’t want to run out of cash without noticing that your assets are illiquid.
Accounts receivable aging
You don’t work for free, and your business isn’t a charity. Doing the work and sending the invoice is just part of the battle. You also have to make sure those payments get paid and collected. Your accounts receivable (A/R) aging report tells you how well you are doing on the collections side. Look out for customers who are perpetually late, usually pay on time and recently started paying late, and growing late balances from any customer.
I’ve been very lucky when it comes to collections, but part of that is choosing the right clients to work with.
Revenue by customer
Just as you should be looking at who owes you money, you should be looking at who gives you the most of it. Your revenue by customer report tells you how much you made from each customer over a period of time. Freelancers and professional service businesses rely heavily on repeat business in many industries. Building good relationships with quality clients can turn in to a lucrative, reliable, and healthy income stream.
However, beware of putting too much faith in any one income source. If too much revenue comes from one source, that is called “revenue concentration risk.” If one client leaving would ruin your entire business, you need to get more diverse in who your business serves. Putting too many eggs in one basket might just bankrupt your company.
Accounts payable aging
You probably wouldn’t like it if a company took too long to pay you. Do your vendors a favor and pay them on time as well. Your A/P aging report tells you who you owe and how much. As long as your books are updated, you can easily look and find who you need to pay so you don’t miss the due dates.